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What is SILENT TREATMENT? What does SILENT TREATMENT mean? SILENT TREATMENT meaning & explanation
 
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What is SILENT TREATMENT? What does SILENT TREATMENT mean? SILENT TREATMENT meaning - SILENT TREATMENT definition - SILENT TREATMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Silent treatment (often referred to as the silent treatment) is refusal to communicate verbally with someone who desires the communication. It may range from just sulking to malevolent abusive controlling behaviour. It may be a passive-aggressive form of emotional abuse in which displeasure, disapproval and contempt is exhibited through nonverbal gestures while maintaining verbal silence. Clinical psychologist Harriet Braiker identifies it as a form of manipulative punishment. The term originated from "treatment" through silence, which was fashionable in prisons in the 19th century. In use since the prison reforms of 1835, the silent treatment was used in prisons as an alternative to physical punishment, as it was believed that forbidding prisoners from speaking, calling them by a number rather than their name, and making them cover their faces so they couldn’t see each other would encourage reflection on their crimes. In a relationship, the silent treatment can be a difficult pattern to break because if it is ingrained, relationships may then ultimately fail. The silent treatment is sometimes used as a control mechanism. The silent treatment is a passive-aggressive action where a person feels bad but is unable to express themselves. Their being 'silent' still communicates a message. It can generate what the sulker wants, such as attention and the knowledge others are hurt, plus a feeling of power from creating uncertainty over how long the ‘silence’ will last. Sometimes the goal of the silent treatment is simply to communicate displeasure and once the message has been received and understood the silent treatment ends. Abusers punish their victims by refusing to speak to them or even acknowledge their presence. Through silence, the abusers loudly communicate their displeasure, anger and frustration. The consequences of this behavior on the person isolated by silence are feelings of incompetence and worthlessness. Research by the Workplace Bullying Institute suggests that "using the silent treatment to ice out & separate from others" is the fourth most common of all workplace bullying tactics experienced, and is reported in 64 percent of cases of workplace bullying. The silent treatment is a recognized form of abusive supervision. Other forms include: reminding the victim of past failures, failing to give proper credit, wrongfully assigning blame or blowing up in fits of temper.
Views: 4865 The Audiopedia
What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean? COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT meaning - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT definition - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities. Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development (www.iacdglobal.org), the global network of community development practitioners and scholars, as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organisation, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings". Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions. Community development as a term has taken off widely in anglophone countries i.e. the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand and other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. It is also used in some countries in Eastern Europe with active community development associations in Hungary and Romania. The Community Development Journal, published by Oxford University Press, since 1966 has aimed to be the major forum for research and dissemination of international community development theory and practice. Community development approaches are recognised internationally. These methods and approaches have been acknowledged as significant for local social, economic, cultural, environmental and political development by such organisations as the UN, WHO, OECD, World Bank, Council of Europe and EU.
Views: 16952 The Audiopedia
What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning - ONCOLOGY definition - ONCOLOGY explanation - ONCOLOGY pronunciation. Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ????? (ónkos), meaning "tumor", "volume" or "mass". The three components which have improved survival in cancer are: 1. Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption; 2. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers and comprehensive diagnosis and staging; and 3. Treatment - Multimodality management by discussion in tumour board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre Cancers are best managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary tumour boards where medical oncologist, surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional and financial status of the patients. It is very important for oncologists to keep updated of the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common. All eligible patients in whom cancer progresses and for whom no standard of care treatment options are available should be enrolled in a clinical trial.
Views: 21462 The Audiopedia
What is SECURITY GUARD? What does SECURITY GUARD mean? SECURITY GUARD meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SECURITY GUARD? What does SECURITY GUARD mean? SECURITY GUARD meaning - SECURITY GUARD definition - SECURITY GUARD explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A security guard, security officer, or protective agent is a private person who is paid to protect an organization's assets (property, people, money, etc.) from various hazards (such as waste, damaged property, unsafe worker behaviour, criminal activity, etc.) by utilizing preventative measures. They do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action to minimize damage (example: warning and escorting trespassers off property) and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate. Their international (at least in the United States of America and Canada) symbol of brotherhood is The Thin Green Line. Security officers are generally uniformed to represent their lawful authority on private property. Until the 1980s, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement (other than it being a private matter). This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.
Views: 103517 The Audiopedia
What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning - CORPORATE LAWYER definition - CORPORATE LAWYER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A corporate lawyer is a lawyer who specializes in corporations law. The role of a corporate lawyer is to ensure the legality of commercial transactions, advising corporations on their legal rights and duties, including the duties and responsibilities of corporate officers. In order to do this, they must have knowledge of aspects of contract law, tax law, accounting, securities law, bankruptcy, intellectual property rights, licensing, zoning laws, and the laws specific to the business of the corporations that they work for. In recent years, controversies involving well known companies such as, Walmart and General Motors have highlighted the complex role of corporate lawyers in internal investigations, in which attorney-client privilege could be considered to shelter potential wrongdoing by the company. If a corporate lawyer's internal company clients are not assured of confidentiality, they will be less likely to seek legal advice, but keeping confidences can shelter society's access to vital information. The practice of corporate law is less adversarial than that of trial law. Lawyers for both sides of a commercial transaction are less opponents than facilitators. One lawyer (quoted by Bernstein) characterizes them as "the handmaidens of the deal". Transactions take place amongst peers. There are rarely wronged parties, underdogs, or inequities in the financial means of the participants. Corporate lawyers structure those transactions, draft documents, review agreements, negotiate deals, and attend meetings. What areas of corporate law a corporate lawyer experiences depend from where the firm that he/she works for is, geographically, and how large it is. A small-town corporate lawyer in a small firm may deal in many short-term jobs such as drafting wills, divorce settlements, and real estate transactions, whereas a corporate lawyer in a large city firm may spend many months devoted to negotiating a single business transaction. Similarly, different firms may organize their subdivisions in different ways. Not all will include mergers and acquisitions under the umbrella of a corporate law division, for example. Some corporate lawyers become partners in their firms. Others become in-house counsel for corporations. Others still migrate into other professions such as investment banking and teaching law. Some publications read by those in the profession include Global Legal Studies, Lawyers Weekly, and the National Law Journal. The salary of a corporate lawyer can vary widely: those employed by major international law firms ("BigLaw" firms) earn starting salaries of USD 180,000, which rise every year with experience (this amount excludes any additional bonus payments). Depending on the geographical location, the starting salary may be closer to USD 160,000 if the market is secondary. Attorneys employed at smaller firms tend to earn smaller salaries.
Views: 26177 The Audiopedia
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning
 
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What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT definition - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes. Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights. There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations. Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity. Empowerment movements, including youth empowerment, originate, gain momentum, become viable, and become institutionalized. Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making, and other methods.
Views: 7138 The Audiopedia
What is WELLNESS TOURISM? What does WELLNESS TOURISM mean? WELLNESS TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
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What is WELLNESS TOURISM? What does WELLNESS TOURISM mean? WELLNESS TOURISM meaning - WELLNESS TOURISM definition - WELLNESS TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities. While wellness tourism is often correlated with medical tourism because health interests motivate the traveler, wellness tourists are proactive in seeking to improve or maintain health and quality of life, often focusing on prevention, while medical tourists generally travel reactively to receive treatment for a diagnosed disease or condition. Within the US $3.4 trillion spa and wellness economy, wellness tourism is estimated to total US$494 billion or 14.6 percent of all 2013 domestic and international tourism expenditures. Driven by growth in Asia, the Middle East/North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries, wellness tourism is expected to grow 50 percent faster than the overall tourism industry over the next five years. Market is expected to grow through 2014. Wellness tourists are generally high-yield tourists, spending, on average, 130 percent more than the average tourist. In 2013, International wellness tourists spend approximately 59 percent more per trip than the average international tourist; domestic wellness tourists spend about 159 percent more than the average domestic tourist. Domestic wellness tourism is significantly larger than its international equivalent, representing 84 percent of wellness travel and 68 percent of expenditures (or $299 billion). International wellness tourism represents 16 percent of wellness travel and 32 percent of expenditures ($139 billion market). The wellness tourism market includes primary and secondary wellness tourists. Primary wellness tourists travel entirely for wellness purposes while secondary wellness tourists engage in wellness-related activities as part of a trip. Secondary wellness tourists constitute the significant majority (87 percent) of total wellness tourism trips and expenditures (85 percent). Wellness travelers pursue diverse services, including physical fitness and sports; beauty treatments; healthy diet and weight management; relaxation and stress relief; meditation; yoga; and health-related education. Wellness travelers may seek procedures or treatments using conventional, alternative, complementary, herbal, or homeopathic medicine.
Views: 2363 The Audiopedia
What is SPORTS TOURISM? What does SPORTS TOURISM mean? SPORTS TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
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What is SPORTS TOURISM? What does SPORTS TOURISM mean? SPORTS TOURISM meaning - SPORTS TOURISM definition - SPORTS TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Sports tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event staying apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism is a fast-growing sector of the global travel industry and equates to $7.68 billion. There are several classifications on sport tourism. Gammon and Robinson suggested that the sports tourism are defined as Hard Sports Tourism and Soft Sports Tourism, while Gibson suggested that there are three types of sports tourism included Sports Event Tourism, Celebrity and Nostalgia Sport Tourism and Active Sport Tourism. The "hard" definition of sport tourism refers to the quantity of people participating at a competitive sport events. Normally these kinds of events are the motivation that attract visitors visits the events. Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, F1 Grand Prix and regional events such as NASCAR Sprint Cup Series could be described as hard sports tourism. The "soft" definition of sports tourism is when the tourist travels to participate in recreational sporting, or signing up for leisure interests. Hiking, Skiing and Canoeing can be described as soft sports tourism. Perhaps the most common form of soft sports tourism involves golf in regards to destinations in Europe and the United States. A large number of people are interested in playing some of the world's greatest and highest ranked courses, and take great pride in checking those destinations off of their list of places to visit. Sport event tourism refers to the visitors who visit a city to watch events. The two events that attract the most tourists worldwide are the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup. These events held once every four years, in a different city in the world. Sports tourism in the United States is more focused on events that happen annually. The major event for the National Football League is the Super Bowl, held at the end of the year in different city every year. The National Hockey League started the annual NHL Winter Classic game in 2008, this annual New Year's outdoor hockey game has become a huge hit, rivaling the championship Stanley Cup Tournament in popularity. It has revitalized the NHL. The newest trend in college basketball is to start the season off with annual tournaments such as the Maui Invitational held in Hawaii, and the Battle for Atlantis which is played in the Bahamas. This idea of pairing quality sports events with the Bahamas attractions, raised the islands’ profile and brought in more visitors and dollars to the country. The Battle for Atlantis brought more than 5,000 fans in during Thanksgiving week for the three-day tournament. The event helped increase hotel capacity from what is typically around 60 percent this time of year to 90 percent. sports tourism "is a growing market and many different cities and countries want to be involved,” Celebrity and nostalgia sport tourism involves visits to the sports halls of fame and venue and meeting sports personalities in a vacation basis. Active sport tourism refers to those who participate in the sports or events.
Views: 3711 The Audiopedia
What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning DEUTERIUM pronunciation - DEUTERIUM definition - DEUTERIUM explanation - How to pronounce DEUTERIUM? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Deuterium (symbol D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or on a mass basis 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while the most common isotope (hydrogen-1 or protium) accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek deuteros meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934. Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 (protium) to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter (see references 2,3 and 4). However, other astronomical bodies are found to have different ratios of deuterium to hydrogen-1. This is thought to be as a result of natural isotope separation processes that occur from solar heating of ices in comets. Like the water-cycle in Earth's weather, such heating processes may enrich deuterium with respect to protium. The analysis of deuterium/protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogens). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium/protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Views: 128998 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean? INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW meaning - INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW definition -INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello). It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants. IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice". It includes "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law." It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations, and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning non-combatants. It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering. Serious violations of international humanitarian law are called war crimes. International humanitarian law, jus in bello, regulates the conduct of forces when engaged in war or armed conflict. It is distinct from jus ad bellum which regulates the conduct of engaging in war or armed conflict and includes crimes against peace and of war of aggression. Together the jus in bello and jus ad bellum comprise the two strands of the laws of war governing all aspects of international armed conflicts. The law is mandatory for nations bound by the appropriate treaties. There are also other customary unwritten rules of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. By extension, they also define both the permissive rights of these powers as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories. International humanitarian law operates on a strict division between rules applicable in international armed conflict and internal armed conflict. This dichotomy is widely criticized. The relationship between international human rights law and international humanitarian law is disputed among international law scholars. This discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While pluralist scholars conceive international human rights law as being distinct from international humanitarian law, proponents of the constitutionalist approach regard the latter as a subset of the former. In a nutshell, those who favors separate, self-contained regimes emphasize the differences in applicability; international humanitarian law applies only during armed conflict. On the other hand, a more systemic perspective explains that international humanitarian law represents a function of international human rights law; it includes general norms that apply to everyone at all time as well as specialized norms which apply to certain situations such as armed conflict and military occupation (i.e., IHL) or to certain groups of people including refugees (e.g., the 1951 Refugee Convention), children (the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child), and prisoners of war (the 1949 Third Geneva Convention).
Views: 16887 The Audiopedia
What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning - SOCIAL WORK definition - SOCIAL WORK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Social Work is both an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with helping individuals, families, groups and communities enhance their social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, and the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work is underpinned by theories of social science and humanitites and guided by principles of social justice, rights, collective responsibility, and respect for diversity, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges, socioeconomic development, social cohesion and enhance well-being. Their engagement with client systems create changes and with communities they may bring about social change. Social work practice is often divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; and macro-work, which involves working communities, and within social policy, to create change on a larger scale. Social work as such began in the 20th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing, but the practice of responding to social needs existed long before then, as evidenced primarily by a long history of private charities and religious organizations. The effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression developed and clarified popular understanding of social work into a conception of the field that mostly resembles the one that prevails today. Social work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines. However, although social work practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these social work organizations offer the following definitions. “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledges, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." - International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty, unemployment and domestic violence." - Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values, principles, and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services; counseling and psychotherapy with individuals, families, and groups; helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services; and participating in legislative processes. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior; of social and economic, and cultural institutions; and of the interaction of all these factors."- National Association of Social Workers "Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers often work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers.
Views: 29420 The Audiopedia
What is CASHIER? What does CASHIER mean? CASHIER meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CASHIER? What does CASHIER mean? CASHIER meaning -CASHIER pronunciation - CASHIER definition - CASHIER explanation - How to pronounce CASHIER? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A retail cashier or simply a cashier is a person who handles the cash register at various locations such as the point of sale in a retail store. The most common use of the title is in the retail industry, but this job title is also used in the context of accountancy for the person responsible for receiving and disbursing money or within branch banking in the United Kingdom for the job known in the United States as a bank teller. In a shop, a cashier (or checkout operator) is a person who scans the goods through a cash register that the customer wishes to purchase at the retail store. The items are scanned by a barcode positioned on the item with the use of a laser scanner. After all of the goods have been scanned, the cashier then collects the payment (in cash, check and/or by credit/debit card) for the goods or services exchanged, records the amount received, makes change, and issues receipts or tickets to customers. Cashiers will record amounts received and may prepare reports of transactions, reads and record totals shown on cash register tape and verify against cash on hand. A cashier may be required to know value and features of items for which money is received; may cash checks; may give cash refunds or issue credit memorandums to customers for returned merchandise; and may operate ticket-dispensing machines and the like. In one form or another, cashiers have been around for thousands of years. In many businesses, such as grocery stores, the cashier is a "stepping stone" position. Many employers require employees to be cashiers in order to move up to customer service or other positions. Cashiers are at risk of repetitive strain injuries due to the repeated movements often necessary to do the job, such as entering information on a keypad or moving product over a scanner. Included also is the physical strain of standing on one's feet for several hours in one spot. Because of this, many cashiers are only able to do a six-hour-long shift under different policies. A less-current meaning of the term referred to the employee of a business responsible for receiving and disbursing money. In a non-retail business, this would be a position of significant responsibility. With an ever-larger proportion of transactions being done using cash substitutes (such as checks, credit cards, debit cards, etc.), the amount of cash handled by such employees has declined, and this usage of the word "cashier" has been largely supplanted by the title comptroller. In a bank branch in the United Kingdom, a cashier is someone who enables customers to interact with their accounts, such as by accepting and disbursing money and accepting checks. In the United States, this job is called a bank teller.
Views: 25546 The Audiopedia
What is DEFERRED PROSECUTION? What does DEFERRED PROSECUTION mean? DEFERRED PROSECUTION meaning
 
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What is DEFERRED PROSECUTION? What does DEFERRED PROSECUTION mean? DEFERRED PROSECUTION meaning - DEFERRED PROSECUTION definition - DEFERRED PROSECUTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A deferred prosecution agreement (DPA), which is very similar to a non-prosecution agreement (NPA), is a voluntary alternative to adjudication in which a prosecutor agrees to grant amnesty in exchange for the defendant agreeing to fulfill certain requirements. A case of corporate fraud, for instance, might be settled by means of a deferred-prosecution agreement in which the defendant agrees to pay fines, implement corporate reforms, and fully cooperate with the investigation. Fulfillment of the specified requirements will then result in dismissal of the charges. Since 1999, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) has set forth guidelines concerning the prosecution of business organizations and corporations. The United States Attorneys' Manual (USAM) of the DOJ allows consideration of non-prosecution or deferred prosecution of corporate criminal offenses because of collateral consequences and discusses plea agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, and non-prosecution agreements in general. Under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, a past deferred prosecution will not count toward a defendant's criminal history, if there was no finding of guilt by a court and the defendant did not plead guilty or otherwise admit guilt in open court. This is in contrast to a deferred disposition, which typically does involve such a finding or admission. According to Rachel Barkow and Anthony Barkow, both of NYU Law School, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of DPAs and NPAs by federal prosecutors, increasing from eleven between 1993 and 2001, to 23 between 2002 and 2005, to 66 between 2006 and 2008. This kind of regulation-by-prosecutor has also occurred at the state level, for example at the New York Attorney General’s Office under Eliot Spitzer and Andrew Cuomo. Outside monitors are appointed in about half of all DPAs.
Views: 1774 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean?
 
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What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean? EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION meaning - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION definition - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met. If standards are met, accredited status is granted by the appropriate agency. In most countries the function of educational accreditation is conducted by a government organization, such as a Ministry of Education. In the United States a quality assurance process exists that is independent of government and performed by private non-profit organizations. Those organizations are formally called accreditors. All accreditors in the US must in turn be recognized by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI), which is an advisory body to the U.S. Secretary of Education, in order to receive federal funding and any other type of federal recognition. Therefore, the federal government is the principal architect and controlling authority of accreditation. The U.S. accreditation process was developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century after educational institutions perceived a need for improved coordination and articulation between secondary and post-secondary educational institutions, along with standardization of requirements between the two levels. Accreditation of higher education varies by jurisdiction and may be focused on either or both the institution or the individual programs of study. Higher education accreditation in the United States has long been established as a peer review process coordinated by accreditation commissions and member institutions. The federal government began to play a limited role in higher education accreditation in 1952 with the reauthorization of the GI Bill for Korean War veterans. With the creation of the U.S. Department of Education and under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies for higher education. In the United States, there is no federal government list of recognized accreditation agencies for primary and secondary schools like there is for higher education. Public schools must adhere to criteria set by the state governments, and there is wide variation among the individual states in the requirements applied to non-public primary and secondary schools. There are six regional accreditors in the United States that have historically accredited elementary schools, junior high schools, middle schools, high schools, as well as institutions of higher education. Some of the regional accreditors, such as AdvancED, and some independent associations, such as the Association of Christian Schools International, have expanded their accreditation activity to include schools outside of the United States.
Views: 2721 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning - HUMAN SECURITY definition -HUMAN SECURITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centred, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies. Alternatively, other scholars have argued that the concept of human security should be broadened to encompass military security: 'In other words, if this thing called ‘human security’ has the concept of ‘the human’ embedded at the heart of it, then let us address the question of the human condition directly. Thus understood, human security would no longer be the vague amorphous add-on to harder edged areas of security such as military security or state security.' In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canada's foreign policy, "three Ds", has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development. The emergence of the human security discourse was the product of a convergence of factors at the end of the Cold War. These challenged the dominance of the neorealist paradigm’s focus on states, “mutually assured destruction” and military security and briefly enabled a broader concept of security to emerge. The increasingly rapid pace of globalisation; the failure of liberal state building through the instruments of the Washington Consensus; the reduced threat of nuclear war between the superpowers, the exponential rise in the spread and consolidation of democratisation and international human rights norms opened a space in which both ‘development’ and concepts of ‘security’ could be reconsidered. At the same time the increasing number of internal violent conflicts in Africa, Asia and Europe (Balkans) resulted in concepts of national and international security failing to reflect the challenges of the post Cold War security environment whilst the failure of neoliberal development models to generate growth, particularly in Africa, or to deal with the consequences of complex new threats (such as HIV and climate change) reinforced the sense that international institutions and states were not organised to address such problems in an integrated way. The principal possible indicators of movement toward an individualized conception of security lie in the first place in the evolution of international society's consideration of rights of individuals in the face of potential threats from states. The most obvious foci of analysis here are the UN Charter, the UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and its associated covenants (1966), and conventions related to particular crimes (e.g.,genocide) and the rights of particular groups (e.g., women, racial groups, and refugees).
Views: 11855 The Audiopedia
What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning - INSTRUMENTATION pronunciation - INSTRUMENTATION definition - INSTRUMENTATION explanation - How to pronounce INSTRUMENTATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Instrumentation is the development or use of measuring instruments for observation, monitoring or control. An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity, such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading hand-held thermometers or as complex as multi-variable process analyzers. Although instrumentation is often used to measure and control process variables within a laboratory or manufacturing area, it can be found in the household as well. A smoke detector is one example of a common instrument found in many western homes. Ralph Müller (1940) states "That the history of physical science is largely the history of instruments and their intelligent use is well known. The broad generalizations and theories which have arisen from time to time have stood or fallen on the basis of accurate measurement, and in several instances new instruments have had to be devised for the purpose. There is little evidence to show that the mind of modern man is superior to that of the ancients. His tools are incomparably better." Davis Baird has argued that the major change associated with Floris Cohen's identification of a "fourth big scientific revolution" after World War II is the development of scientific instrumentation, not only in chemistry but across the sciences. In chemistry, the introduction of new instrumentation in the 1940s was "nothing less than a scientific and technological revolution" in which classical wet-and-dry methods of structural organic chemistry were discarded, and new areas of research opened up. The ability to make precise, verifiable and reproducible measurements of the natural world, at levels that were not previously observable, using scientific instrumentation, has "provided a different texture of the world". This instrumentation revolution fundamentally changes human abilities to monitor and respond, as is illustrated in the examples of DDT monitoring and the use of UV spectrophotometry and gas chromatography to monitor water pollutants. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles. Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate a variety of other devices, and to support either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. As early as 1954, Wildhack discussed both the productive and destructive potential inherent in process control.
Views: 28630 The Audiopedia
What is CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY? What does CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY mean? CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY? What does CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY mean? CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY meaning - CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY definition - CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthropology. The study goes deeply into what makes someone commit a crime, but also the reactions after the crime, on the run or in court. Criminal psychologists are often called up as witnesses in court cases to help the jury understand the mind of the criminal. Some types of psychiatry also deal with aspects of criminal behavior. Psychiatrists and psychologists are licensed professionals that can assess both mental and physical states. Profilers look for patterns in behavior to typify the individual(s) behind a crime. A group effort attempts to answer the most common psychological questions: If there is a risk of a sexual predator re-offending if put back in society; if an offender is competent to stand trial; whether or not an offender was sane/insane at the time of the offense. The question of competency to stand trial is a question of an offender’s current state of mind. This assesses the offender’s ability to understand the charges against them, the possible outcomes of being convicted/acquitted of these charges and their ability to assist their attorney with their defense. The question of sanity/insanity or criminal responsibility is an assessment of the offenders state of mind at the time of the crime. This refers to their ability to understand right from wrong and what is against the law. The insanity defense is rarely used, as it is very difficult to prove. If declared insane, an offender is committed to a secure hospital facility for much longer than they would have served in prison—theoretically, that is. In 1981, one of the fathers of UK's criminal psychology – Professor Lionel Haward – described four ways that psychologist may perform upon being professionally involved in criminal proceedings. These are the following: Clinical: In this situation, the psychologist is involved in assessment of individual in order to provide a clinical judgment. The psychologist can use assessment tools, interview or psychometric tool in order to aid in his/her assessment. These assessments can help police or other competitive organs determine how to process e individual in question. For example, help finding out whether he/she is capable to stand trial or whether the individual has mental illness which means, that he/she is unable to understand the proceedings. Experimental: In this case, the task of psychologist is to perform a research in order to inform a case. This can involve executing experimental tests for the purposes of illustrating a point or providing further information to courts. This may involve false memory, eyewitness credibility experiments and such. For example, this way questions similar to “how likely would a witness see an object in 100 meters?” will be answered. Actuarial: This role involves usage of statistics in order to inform a case. For example, a psychologist may be asked to provide probability of an event occurring. Therefore, the courts may ask how likely a person will reoffend if a sentence is declined. Advisory: Here, a psychologist may advise police about how to proceed with the investigation. For example, which is the best way to interview the individual, how best cross-examine a vulnerable or another expert witness, how an offender will act after committing the offence. A major part of criminal psychology, known as criminal profiling, began in the 1940s when the United States Office of Strategic Services asked William L. Langer's brother Walter C. Langer, a well renowned psychiatrist, to draw up a profile of Adolf Hitler. After the Second World War, British psychologist Lionel Haward, while working for the Royal Air Force police, drew up a list of characteristics which high-ranking war criminals might display, to be able to spot them amongst ordinary captured soldiers and airmen.
Views: 34395 The Audiopedia
What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning - BRAND AMBASSADOR definition - BRAND AMBASSADOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A Brand Ambassador (sometimes also called a Corporate Ambassador) is a person who is hired by an organization or company to represent a brand in a positive light and by doing so help to increase brand awareness and sales. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate identity in appearance, demeanor, values and ethics. The key element of brand ambassadors is their ability to use promotional strategies that will strengthen the customer-product-service relationship and influence a large audience to buy and consume more. Predominantly, a brand ambassador is known as a positive spokesperson, an opinion leader or a community influencer, appointed as an internal or external agent to boost product or service sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has expanded beyond celebrity branding to self-branding or personal brand management. Professional figures such as good-will and non-profit ambassadors, promotional models, testimonials and brand advocates have formed as an extension of the same concept, taking into account the requirements of every company. The term brand ambassador loosely refers to a commodity which covers all types of event staff, varying between trade show hosts, in store promotional members and street teams. According to Brain, the job of a brand ambassador was undertaken typically by a celebrity or someone of a well-known presence, who was often paid considerably for their time and effort. Nowadays however, a brand ambassador can be anyone who has knowledge or can identify certain needs a brand is seeking. The fashion industry however, solely rely on celebrity clientele in order to remain brand ambassadors. Furthermore, brand ambassadors are considered to be the key salesperson for a product or service on offer. They must remain well informed when it comes to the brand they are representing, due to their nature of being the go-to person when questions arise from consumers. The brand ambassador's job is to drive results through communication tools either publicly, such as social media, or privately including emails, messaging and further one-to-one channels.
Views: 28946 The Audiopedia
What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning - SUPERVISOR pronunciation - SUPERVISOR definition - SUPERVISOR explanation - How to pronounce SUPERVISOR? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A Supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term Supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour): 1. Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. 2. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees. If an employee cannot do the above, legally, he or she is probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as a work group leader or lead hand. A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety. A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are (1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have budget authority. Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working in the supervisor's group nor does the supervisor have the authority to terminate an employee. The supervisor may participate in the hiring process as part of interviewing and assessing candidates, but the actual hiring authority rests in the hands of a Human Resource Manager. The supervisor may recommend to management that a particular employee be terminated and the supervisor may be the one who documents the behaviors leading to the recommendation but the actual firing authority rests in the hands of a manager. Lacking budget authority means that a supervisor is provided a budget developed by management within which constraints the supervisor is expected to provide a productive environment for the employees of the supervisor's work group. A supervisor will usually have the authority to make purchases within specified limits. A supervisor is also given the power to approve work hours and other payroll issues. Normally, budget affecting requests such as travel will require not only the supervisor's approval but the approval of one or more layers of management. As a member of management, a supervisor's main job is more concerned with orchestrating and controlling work rather than performing it directly.
Views: 70968 The Audiopedia
What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning
 
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What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION definition - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An alumni association is an association of graduates or, more broadly, of former students (alumni). In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni from the same organization. These associations often organize social events, publish newsletters or magazines, and raise funds for the organization. Many provide a variety of benefits and services that help alumni maintain connections to their educational institution and fellow graduates. In the US, most associations do not require its members to be an alumnus of a university to enjoy membership and privileges. Additionally, such groups often support new alumni, and provide a forum to form new friendships and business relationships with people of similar background. Alumni associations are mainly organized around universities or departments of universities, but may also be organized among students that studied in a certain country. In the past, they were often considered to be the university's or school's old boy society (or old boys network). Today, alumni associations involve graduates of all age groups and demographics. Alumni associations are often organized into chapters by city, region, or country. Alumni associations can also include associations of former employees of a business. An alumnus of a company is a person who was formerly employed by it. These associations are growing in popularity and becoming an important part of a personal business network.
Views: 5428 The Audiopedia
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean?
 
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What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean? CROP SIMULATION MODEL meaning - CROP SIMULATION MODEL definition - CROP SIMULATION MODEL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A Crop Simulation Model (CSM) is a simulation model that helps estimate crop yield as a function of weather conditions, soil conditions, and choice of crop management practices. Crop simulation models have been classified into three broad categories: Statistical models: These typically rely on yield information for large areas (such as counties), and identify broad trends. The two main trends identified are a secular trend of a gradual increase in crop yield, and variation based on weather conditions. Statistical models are a significant improvement over naive historical predictions, but are not preferred for very fine-grained predictions. Mechanistic models: These attempt to use fundamental mechanisms of plant and soil processes to simulate specific outcomes. These involve fairly detailed and computation-intensive simulations. These models use a continuous evolution and simulating them previously requires a small time step. Functional models: These use simplified closed functional forms to simulate complex processes. They are computationally easier than mechanistic models, and can often give results that are of only somewhat worse accuracy. The Penman equation is an example of an equation that might be used as a component of a functional model. Functional models are typically run using a daily time step and the data is updated daily.
Views: 2592 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean? HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT meaning - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT definition - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws. HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees. In startup companies, trained professionals may perform HR duties. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. HR is also a field of research study that is popular within the fields of management and industrial/organizational psychology, with research articles appearing in a number of academic journals, including those mentioned later in this article. Businesses are moving globally and forming more diverse teams. It is the role of human resources to make sure that these teams can function and people are able to communicate cross culturally and across borders. Due to changes in business, current topics in human resources are diversity and inclusion as well as using technology to advance employee engagement. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing corporate knowledge.
Views: 69921 The Audiopedia
What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning
 
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What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning - COMMUNITY POLICING definition - COMMUNITY POLICING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on police building ties and working closely with members of the communities. In the United States, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 established the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) within the Justice Department to promote community policing. Community policing is a policy that requires police to inherit a proactive approach to address public safety concerns. Community-oriented policing was a cornerstone of the Clinton Administration and gained its funding from the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. The overall assessment of community oriented policing is positive, as both officers and community members attest to its effectiveness in reducing crime and raising the sense of security in a community. "Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems." —Bertus Ferreira Community policing creates partnerships between law enforcement agency and other organizations like government agencies, community members, nonprofit service providers, private businesses and the media. The media represent a powerful pattern by which the police can communicate with the community. Community policing recognizes that police cannot solve every public safety problem alone, so interactive partnerships are created. The policing uses the public for developing problem-solving solutions. The contemporary community policing movement emphasizes changing the role of law enforcement from a static, reactive, incident-driven bureaucracy to a more dynamic, open, quality-oriented partnership with the community. Community policing philosophy emphasizes that police officers work closely with local citizens and community agencies in designing and implementing a variety of crime prevention strategies and problem-solving measures. Common implementations of community-policing include: Relying on community-based crime prevention by utilizing civilian education, neighborhood watch, and a variety of other techniques, as opposed to relying solely on police patrols. Re-structuralizing of patrol from an emergency response based system to emphasizing proactive techniques such as foot patrol. Increased officer accountability to civilians they are supposed to serve. Decentralizing the police authority, allowing more discretion amongst lower-ranking officers, and more initiative expected from them.
Views: 8215 The Audiopedia
What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean? PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION meaning - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION definition - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct" Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration." The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.
Views: 52491 The Audiopedia
What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION definition - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. Vocational education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade and Technical schools. Until recently, almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.
Views: 46252 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning - INTERNAL AUDIT definition - INTERNAL AUDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. Internal auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization's governance, risk management and management controls by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. With commitment to integrity and accountability, internal auditing provides value to governing bodies and senior management as an objective source of independent advice. Professionals called internal auditors are employed by organizations to perform the internal auditing activity. The scope of internal auditing within an organization is broad and may involve topics such as an organization's governance, risk management and management controls over: efficiency/effectiveness of operations (including safeguarding of assets), the reliability of financial and management reporting, and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditing may also involve conducting proactive fraud audits to identify potentially fraudulent acts; participating in fraud investigations under the direction of fraud investigation professionals, and conducting post investigation fraud audits to identify control breakdowns and establish financial loss. Internal auditors are not responsible for the execution of company activities; they advise management and the Board of Directors (or similar oversight body) regarding how to better execute their responsibilities. As a result of their broad scope of involvement, internal auditors may have a variety of higher educational and professional backgrounds. The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) is the recognized international standard setting body for the internal audit profession and awards the Certified Internal Auditor designation internationally through rigorous written examination. Other designations are available in certain countries. In the United States the professional standards of the Institute of Internal Auditors have been codified in several states' statutes pertaining to the practice of internal auditing in government (New York State, Texas, and Florida being three examples). There are also a number of other international standard setting bodies. Internal auditors work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. Internal auditing departments are led by a Chief Audit Executive ("CAE") who generally reports to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, with administrative reporting to the Chief Executive Officer (In the United States this reporting relationship is required by law for publicly traded companies).
Views: 49536 The Audiopedia
What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also be known as, or overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Views: 26443 The Audiopedia
What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning - ENTREPRENEURSHIP pronunciation - ENTREPRENEURSHIP definition - ENTREPRENEURSHIP explanation - How to pronounce ENTREPRENEURSHIP? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Entrepreneurship has traditionally been defined as the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which typically begins as a small business, such as a startup company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire. It has been defined as the "...capacity and willingness to develop, organize, and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit." While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of businesses have to close, due to a "...lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis -- or a combination of all of these" or due to lack of market demand. In the 2000s, the definition of "entrepreneurship" has been expanded to explain how and why some individuals (or teams) identify opportunities, evaluate them as viable, and then decide to exploit them, whereas others do not, and, in turn, how entrepreneurs use these opportunities to develop new products or services, launch new firms or even new industries and create wealth. Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as "a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk". Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a small business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes." Entrepreneurs tend to be good at perceiving new business opportunities and they often exhibit positive biases in their perception (i.e., a bias towards finding new possibilities and seeing unmet market needs) and a pro-risk-taking attitude that makes them more likely to exploit the opportunity."Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking." While entrepreneurship is often associated with new, small, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms, new and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary sector groups, charitable organizations and government. For example, in the 2000s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian, environmental or community goals. An entrepreneur is typically in control of a commercial undertaking, directing the factors of production–the human, financial and material resources–that are required to exploit a business opportunity. They act as the manager and oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual (or team) identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include actions such as developing a business plan, hiring the human resources, acquiring financial and material resources, providing leadership, and being responsible for the venture's success or failure. Economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) stated that the role of the entrepreneur in the economy is "creative destruction"–launching innovations that simultaneously destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches. For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur ... the ‘norm’ of a healthy economy."
Views: 76189 The Audiopedia
What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning - PHARMACOVIGILANCE definition - PHARMACOVIGILANCE explanation - How to pronounce PHARMACOVIGILANCE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. The etymological roots for the word "pharmacovigilance" are: pharmakon (Greek for drug) and vigilare (Latin for to keep watch). As such, pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy (the condition that this definition only applies with the doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological disorder function was excluded with the latest amendment of the applicable legislation). Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest, even without an adverse event, because they may result in an adverse drug reaction. Information received from patients and healthcare providers via pharmacovigilance agreements (PVAs), as well as other sources such as the medical literature, plays a critical role in providing the data necessary for pharmacovigilance to take place. In fact, in order to market or to test a pharmaceutical product in most countries, adverse event data received by the license holder (usually a pharmaceutical company) must be submitted to the local drug regulatory authority. (See Adverse Event Reporting below.) Ultimately, pharmacovigilance is concerned with identifying the hazards associated with pharmaceutical products and with minimizing the risk of any harm that may come to patients. Companies must conduct a comprehensive drug safety and pharmacovigilance audit to assess their compliance with worldwide laws, regulations, and guidance. Pharmacovigilance has its own unique terminology that is important to understand. Most of the following terms are used within this article and are peculiar to drug safety, although some are used by other disciplines within the pharmaceutical sciences as well. Adverse drug reaction is a side effect (non intended reaction to the drug) occurring with a drug where a positive (direct) causal relationship between the event and the drug is thought, or has been proven, to exist. Adverse event (AE) is a side effect occurring with a drug. By definition, the causal relationship between the AE and the drug is unknown. Benefits are commonly expressed as the proven therapeutic good of a product but should also include the patient's subjective assessment of its effects. Causal relationship is said to exist when a drug is thought to have caused or contributed to the occurrence of an adverse drug reaction. Clinical trial (or study) refers to an organised program to determine the safety and/or efficacy of a drug (or drugs) in patients. The design of a clinical trial will depend on the drug and the phase of its development. Control group is a group (or cohort) of individual patients that is used as a standard of comparison within a clinical trial. The control group may be taking a placebo (where no active drug is given) or where a different active drug is given as a comparator. Dechallenge and rechallenge refer to a drug being stopped and restarted in a patient, respectively. A positive dechallenge has occurred, for example, when an adverse event abates or resolves completely following the drug's discontinuation. A positive rechallenge has occurred when the adverse event re-occurs after the drug is restarted. Dechallenge and rechallenge play an important role in determining whether a causal relationship between an event and a drug exists.
Views: 18275 The Audiopedia
What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
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What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning - CULTURAL TOURISM definition - CULTURAL TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Cultural Tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions. Cultural tourism has been defined as 'the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs'. These cultural needs can include the solidification of one's own cultural identity, by observing the exotic "other". Cultural tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The World Tourism Organisation, for example, asserted that cultural tourism accounted for 37% of global tourism, and forecast that it would grow at a rate of 15% per year. Such figures are often quoted in studies of the cultural tourism market (e.g. Bywater, 1993), but are rarely backed up with empirical research. A recent study of the cultural consumption habits of Europeans (European Commission 2002) indicated that people visited museums and galleries abroad almost as frequently as they did at home. This underlines the growing importance of cultural tourism as a source of cultural consumption. The generalisation of cultural consumption on holiday, however, points to one of the main problems of defining cultural tourism. What is the difference between cultural visits on holiday (cultural tourism) and cultural visits undertaken during leisure time at home? Much of the research undertaken by the Association for Leisure and Tourism Education (ATLAS) on the international cultural tourism market (Richards 1996; 2001) has in fact underlined the high degree of continuity between consumption of culture at home and on holiday. In spite of these problems, policy makers, tourist boards and cultural attraction managers around the world continue to view cultural tourism as an important potential source of tourism growth. There is a general perception that cultural tourism is ’good’ tourism that attracts high spending visitors and does little damage to the environment or local culture while contributing a great deal to the economy and support of culture. Other commentators, however, have suggested that cultural tourism may do more harm than good, allowing the cultural tourist to penetrate sensitive cultural environments as the advance guard of the mass tourist.
Views: 7067 The Audiopedia
What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning
 
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What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY definition - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Cultural diplomacy a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, information, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding." The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation," which in turn creates influence. Though often overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security aims. Culture is a set of values and practices that create meaning for society. This includes both high culture (literature, art, and education, which appeals to elites) and popular culture (appeals to the masses). This is what governments seek to show foreign audiences when engaging in cultural diplomacy. It is a type of soft power, which is the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies." This indicates that the value of culture is its ability to attract foreigners to a nation. Cultural diplomacy is also a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but simultaneously public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large.” It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be fully effective where there is already a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the other’s culture.” Cultural diplomacy has been called the “linchpin of public diplomacy” because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow naturally and organically, without government intervention – the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, communications, book circulation, migration, media access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. If that is correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests.” It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a very real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies. Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening- cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange. This exchange is then intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities. It is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. Ultimately, the goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, which is built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies. It seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to: - have a positive view of the country's people, culture and policies, - induce greater cooperation between the two nations, - aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation, - prevent, manage and mitigate conflict with the target nation.
Views: 2418 The Audiopedia
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning - CREOLIZATION pronunciation - CREOLIZATION definition - CREOLIZATION explanation - How to pronounce CREOLIZATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that creolization also is the mixing of the "old" and "traditional" with the "new" and "modern". Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that creolization is a condition in which "the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures," and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms. According to Charles Stewart the concept of creolization originates during the 16th century, although, there is no date recording the beginning of the word creolization. The term creolization was understood to be a distinction between those individuals born in the "Old World" versus the New World. As consequence to slavery and the different power relations between different races creolization became synonymous with Creole, often of which was used to distinguish the master and the slave. The word Creole was also used to distinguish those Afro-descendants who were born in the New World in comparison to African-born slaves. The word creolization has evolved and changed to have different meaning at different times in history. What has not changed through the course of time is the context in which Creole has been used. It has been associated with cultural mixtures of African, European, and indigenous (in addition to other lineages in different locations) ancestry (e.g. Caribbeans). Creole has pertained to "African-diasporic geographical and historical specificity". With globalization, creolization has undergone a "remapping of worlds regions", or as Orlando Patterson would explain, "the creation of wholly new cultural forms in the transnational space, such as 'New Yorican' and Miami Spanish". Today, creolization refers to this mixture of different people and different cultures that merge to become one. Creolization as a relational process can enable new forms of identity formation and processes of communal enrichment through pacific intermixtures and aggregations, but its uneven dynamics remain a factor to consider whether in the context of colonization or globalization. The meeting points of multiple diasporas and the crossing and intersection of diasporas are sites of new creolizations. New sites of creolizations continue the ongoing ethics of the sharing of the world that has now become a global discourse which is rooted in English and French Caribbean. The cultural fusion and hybridization of new diasporas surfaces and creates new forms of creolization. There are different processes of creolization have shaped and reshaped the different forms of one culture. For example, food, music, and religion have been impacted by the creolization of today's world. Creolization has affected the elements and traditions of food. The blend of cooking that describes the mixture of African and French elements in the American South, particularly in Louisiana, and in the French Caribbean have been influenced by creolization. This mixture has led to the unique combination of cultures that led to cuisine of creolization, better known as creole cooking. These very creations of difference flavors particularly pertains to specific territory which is influenced by different histories and experiences.
Views: 2621 The Audiopedia
What is SEROLOGY? What does SEROLOGY mean? SEROLOGY meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SEROLOGY? What does SEROLOGY mean? SEROLOGY meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection (against a given microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease). Serological tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes when an infection is suspected, in rheumatic illnesses, and in many other situations, such as checking an individual's blood type. Serology blood tests help to diagnose patients with certain immune deficiencies associated with the lack of antibodies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In such cases, tests for antibodies will be consistently negative. There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. These include: ELISA, agglutination, precipitation, complement-fixation, and fluorescent antibodies. Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can also be performed on other bodily fluids such as semen and saliva, which have (roughly) similar properties to serum. Serological tests may also be used in forensic serology, specifically for a piece of evidence (e.g., linking a rapist to a semen sample).
Views: 41106 The Audiopedia
What is SPECIAL EDUCATION? What does SPECIAL EDUCATION mean? SPECIAL EDUCATION meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2IlNl98 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SPECIAL EDUCATION? What does SPECIAL EDUCATION mean? SPECIAL EDUCATION meaning - SPECIAL EDUCATION definition - SPECIAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Special education (also known as special needs education or aided education) is the practice of educating students with special educational needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings. These interventions are designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and their community, than may be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Common special needs include learning disabilities, communication disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disabilities. Students with these kinds of special needs are likely to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a specifically adapted teaching area, or a resource room. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can also benefit from specialised teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is generally used to specifically indicate instruction of students with disabilities. Gifted education is handled separately. Whereas special education is designed specifically for students with special needs, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs; the defining trait is simply that they have reached a point of unpreparedness, regardless of why. For example, even people of high intelligence can be under prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is often regarded as a service rather than a place. Integration can reduce social stigmas and improve academic achievement for many students. The opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum presented without special teaching methods or supports.
Views: 12689 The Audiopedia
What is REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT? What does REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT mean?
 
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What is REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT? What does REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT mean? REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT meaning - REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT definition - REAL-TIME GROSS SETTLEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Real-time gross settlement are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money or securities takes place from one bank to another on a "real time" and on a "gross" basis. Settlement in "real time" means a payment transaction is not subjected to any waiting period, with transactions being settled as soon as they are processed. "Gross settlement" means the transaction is settled on one-to-one basis without bundling or netting with any other transaction. "Settlement" means that once processed, payments are final and irrevocable. RTGS systems are typically used for high-value transactions that require and receive immediate clearing. In some countries the RTGS systems may be the only way to get same day cleared funds and so may be used when payments need to be settled urgently. However, most regular payments would not use a RTGS system, but instead would use a national payment system or network that allows participants to batch and net payments. RTGS systems are usually operated by a country's central bank as it is seen as a critical infrastructure for a country's economy. Economists believe that an efficient national payment system reduces the cost of exchanging goods and services, and is indispensable to the functioning of the interbank, money, and capital markets. A weak payment system may severely drag on the stability and developmental capacity of a national economy; its failures can result in inefficient use of financial resources, inequitable risk-sharing among agents, actual losses for participants, and loss of confidence in the financial system and in the very use of money. maintained or controlled by the central bank of a country. There is no physical exchange of money; the central bank makes adjustments in the electronic accounts of Bank A and Bank B, reducing the balance in Bank A's account by the amount in question and increasing the balance of Bank B's account by the same amount. The RTGS system is suited for low-volume, high-value transactions. It lowers settlement risk, besides giving an accurate picture of an institution's account at any point of time. The objective of RTGS systems by central banks throughout the world is to minimize risk in high-value electronic payment settlement systems. In an RTGS system, transactions are settled across accounts held at a central bank on a continuous gross basis. Settlement is immediate, final and irrevocable. Credit risks due to settlement lags are eliminated. The best RTGS national payment system cover up to 95% of high-value transactions within the national monetary market. RTGS systems are an alternative to systems of settling transactions at the end of the day, also known as the net settlement system, such as the BACS system in the United Kingdom. In a net settlement system, all the inter-institution transactions during the day are accumulated, and at the end of the day, the central bank adjusts the accounts of the institutions by the net amounts of these transactions. The World Bank has been paying increasing attention to payment system development as a key component of the financial infrastructure of a country, and has provided various forms of assistance to over 100 countries. Most of the RTGS systems in place are secure and have been designed around international standards and best practices. There are several reasons for central banks to adopt RTGS. First, a decision to adopt is influenced by competitive pressure from the global financial markets. Second, it is more beneficial to adopt an RTGS system for central bank when this allows access to a broad system of other countries' RTGS systems. Third, it is very likely that the knowledge acquired through experiences with RTGS systems spills over to other central banks and helps them make their adoption decision. Fourth, central banks do not necessarily have to install and develop RTGS themselves. The possibility of sharing development with providers that have built RTGS systems in more than one country (CGI of UK, CMA Small System of Sweden, JV Perago of South Africa and SIA SpA of Italy, Montran of USA) has presumably lowered the cost and hence made it feasible for many countries to adopt. As at 1985, three central banks had implemented RTGS systems, while by the end of 2005, RTGS systems had been implemented by 90 central banks.
Views: 5400 The Audiopedia
What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning - REDLINING pronunciation - REDLINING definition - REDLINING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In the United States, redlining is the practice of denying services, either directly or through selectively raising prices, to residents of certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeups of those areas. While some of the most famous examples of redlining regard denying financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care or even supermarkets, can be denied to residents (or in the case of businesses like the aforementioned supermarkets, simply moved impractically far away from such residents) to carry out redlining. The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a sociologist and community activist. It refers to the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sex) irrespective of geography. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods. For example, in Atlanta in the 1980s, a Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles by investigative-reporter Bill Dedman showed that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle- or upper-income blacks. The use of blacklists is a related mechanism also used by redliners to keep track of groups, areas, and people that the discriminating party feels should be denied business or aid or other transactions. In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer targets nonwhite consumers, not to deny them loans or insurance, but rather to charge them more than could be charged to a comparable white consumer. "As a consequence of redlining, neighborhoods that local banks deemed unfit for investment were left underdeveloped or in disrepair. Attempts to improve these neighborhoods with even relatively small-scale business ventures were commonly obstructed by financial institutions that continued to label the underwriting as too risky or simply rejected them outright. When existing businesses collapsed, new ones were not allowed to replace them, often leaving entire blocks empty and crumbling. Consequently African Americans in those neighborhoods were frequently limited in their access to banking, healthcare, retail merchandise, and even groceries." according to blackpast.org contributor Brent Gaspaire. Redlining paralyzed the housing market, lowered property values in certain areas and encouraged landlord abandonment. As abandonment increased, the population density became lower. Abandoned buildings served as havens for drug dealing and other illegal activity, increasing social problems and reluctance of people to invest in these areas. The film Revolution '67 examines the practice of redlining that occurred in Newark, New Jersey in the 1960s.
Views: 10530 The Audiopedia
What is TELECOMMUTING? What does TELECOMMUTING mean? TELECOMMUTING meaning & explanation
 
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What is TELECOMMUTING? What does TELECOMMUTING mean? TELECOMMUTING meaning - TELECOMMUTING pronunciation - TELECOMMUTING definition - TELECOMMUTING explanation - How to pronounce TELECOMMUTING? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute or travel by bus or car to a central place of work, such as an office building, warehouse or store. Teleworkers in the 2000s often use mobile telecommunications technology such as Wi-Fi-equipped laptop or tablet computers and smartphones to work from coffee shops; others may use a desktop computer and a landline phone at their home. According to a Reuters poll, approximately "one in five workers around the globe, particularly employees in the Middle East, Latin America and Asia, telecommute frequently and nearly 10 percent work from home every day." In the 2000s, annual leave or vacation in some organizations is seen as absence from the workplace rather than ceasing work, and some office employees use telework to continue to check work e-mails while on vacation. Although the concepts of "telecommuting" and "telework" are closely related, there is a difference between the two. All types of technology-assisted work conducted outside of a centrally located work space (including work undertaken in the home, outside calls, etc.) are regarded as telework. Telecommuters often maintain a traditional office and usually work from an alternative work site from 1 to 3 days a week. Telecommuting refers more specifically to work undertaken at a location that reduces commuting time. These locations can be inside the home or at some other remote workplace, which is facilitated through a broadband connection, computer or phone lines, or any other electronic media used to interact and communicate. As a broader concept than telecommuting, telework has four dimensions in its definitional framework: work location, that can be anywhere outside of a centralized organizational work place; usage of ICTs (information and communication technologies) as technical support for telework; time distribution, referring to the amount of time replaced in the traditional workplace; and the diversity of employment relationships between employer and employee, ranging from contract work to traditional full-time employment. In the 1990s, telecommuting became the subject of pop culture attention. In 1995, the motto that "work is something you do, not something you travel to" was coined. Variations of this motto include: "Work is something we DO, not a place that we GO" and "Work is what we do, not where we are." Telecommuting has been adopted by a range of businesses, governments and not-for-profit organizations. Organizations may use telecommuting to reduce costs (telecommuting employees do not require an office or cubicle, a space which has to be rented or purchased, provided with lighting and climate control, etc.). Some organizations adopt telecommuting to improve workers' quality of life, as teleworking typically reduces commuting time and time stuck in traffic jams. As well, teleworking may make it easier for workers to balance their work responsibilities with family roles (e.g., caring for children or elderly parents). Some organizations adopt teleworking for environmental reasons, as telework can reduce congestion and air pollution, as it can reduce the number of cars on the roads.
Views: 3993 The Audiopedia
What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning - MARINE ENGINEERING definition - MARINE ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering. Specifically, marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer science, to the development, design, operation and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology. It includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, machinery, piping, automation and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines. The purely mechanical ship operation aspect of marine engineering has some relationship with naval architecture. However, whereas naval architects are concerned with the overall design of the ship and its propulsion through the water, marine engineers are focused towards the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of the ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical power generation and electrical power distribution, interior and exterior communication, and other related requirements. In some cases, the responsibilities of each industry collide and is not specific to either field. Propellers are examples of one of these types of responsibilities. For naval architects a propeller is a hydrodynamic device. For marine engineers a propeller acts similarly to a pump. Hull vibration, excited by the propeller, is another such area. Noise control and shock hardening must be the joint responsibility of both the naval architect and the marine engineer. In fact, most issues caused by machinery are responsibilities in general. Not all marine engineering is concerned with moving vessels. Offshore construction, also called offshore engineering, maritime engineering, is concerned with the technical design of fixed and floating marine structures, such as oil platforms and offshore wind farms. Oceanographic engineering is concerned with mechanical, electrical, and electronic, and computing technology deployed to support oceanography, and also falls under the umbrella of marine engineering, especially in Britain, where it is covered by the same professional organisation, the IMarEST.
Views: 29317 The Audiopedia
What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning - ANALYTICAL SKILL definition - ANALYTICAL SKILL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts. In 1999, Richards J. Heuer Jr., explained that: "Thinking analytically is a skill like carpentry or driving a car. It can be taught, it can be learned, and it can improve with practice. But like many other skills, such as riding a bike, it is not learned by sitting in a classroom and being told how to do it. Analysts learn by doing." To test for analytical skills one might be asked to look for inconsistencies in an advertisement, put a series of events in the proper order, or critically read an essay. Usually standardized tests and interviews include an analytical section that requires the examiner to use their logic to pick apart a problem and come up with a solution. Although there is no question that analytical skills are essential, other skills are equally required. For instance in systems analysis the systems analyst should focus on four sets of analytical skills: systems thinking, organizational knowledge, problem identification, and problem analyzing and solving.
Views: 36513 The Audiopedia
What is EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR? What does EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR mean? EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR meaning
 
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What is EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR? What does EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR mean? EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR meaning - EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR definition - EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. An executive director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. The title is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though many United States nonprofits have adopted the title president or CEO. Confusion can arise because the words executive and director occur both in this title and in titles of various members of some organizations' boards of directors. The precise meanings of these terms are discussed in the board of directors article. The role of the executive director is to design, develop and implement strategic plans for the organization in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. The executive director is also responsible for the day-to-day operation of the organization, which includes managing committees and staff as well as developing business plans in collaboration with the board. In essence, the board grants the executive director the authority to run the organization. The executive director is accountable to the chairman of the board of directors and reports to the board on a regular basis – quarterly, semiannually, or annually. The board may offer suggestions and ideas about how to improve the organization, but the executive director decides whether or not, and how, to implement these ideas. The executive director is a leadership role for an organization and often fulfills a motivational role in addition to office-based work. Executive directors motivate and mentor members, volunteers, and staff, and may chair meetings. The executive director leads the organization and develops its organizational culture. As the title suggests, the executive director needs to be informed of everything that goes on in the organization. This includes staff, membership, budget, company assets, and all other company resources, to help make the best use of them and raise the organization's profitability and profile.
Views: 6725 The Audiopedia
What is SMARTDUST? What does SMARTDUST mean? SMARTDUST meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is SMARTDUST? What does SMARTDUST mean? SMARTDUST meaning - SMARTDUST pronunciation - SMARTDUST definition - SMARTDUST explanation - How to pronounce SMARTDUST? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Smartdust is a system of many tiny microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as sensors, robots, or other devices, that can detect, for example, light, temperature, vibration, magnetism, or chemicals. They are usually operated on a computer network wirelessly and are distributed over some area to perform tasks, usually sensing through radio-frequency identification. Without an antenna of much greater size the range of tiny smart dust communication devices is measured in a few millimeters and they may be vulnerable to electromagnetic disablement and destruction by microwave exposure. The concepts for Smart Dust emerged from a workshop at RAND in 1992 and a series of DARPA ISAT studies in the mid-1990s due to the potential military applications of the technology. The work was strongly influenced by work at UCLA and the University of Michigan during that period, as well as science fiction authors Stanislaw Lem, Neal Stephenson and Vernor Vinge. The first public presentation of the concept by that name was at the American Vacuum Society meeting in Anaheim in 1996. A Smart Dust research proposal was presented to DARPA written by Kristofer S. J. Pister, Joe Kahn, and Bernhard Boser, all from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1997. The proposal, to build wireless sensor nodes with a volume of one cubic millimeter, was selected for funding in 1998. The project led to a working mote smaller than a grain of rice, and larger "COTS Dust" devices kicked off the TinyOS effort at Berkeley. The concept was later expanded upon by Kris Pister in 2001. A recent review discusses various techniques to take smartdust in sensor networks beyond millimeter dimensions to the micrometre level. The Ultra-Fast Systems component of the Nanoelectronics Research Centre at the University of Glasgow is a founding member of a large international consortium which is developing a related concept: smart specks. Smart Dust entered the Gartner Hype Cycle on Emerging Technologies in 2003, and returned in 2013 as the most speculative entrant.
Views: 5135 The Audiopedia
What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ STUDENT PAPER ASSIGNMENTS DONE BY ACADEMY WRITERS. We write your papers - you get TOP GRADES! Check us out and ORDER your plagiarism-free papers with free revisions and money back guarantee - https://extraessay.com?key_wpg=c8ce723fad1d07be0b01e85b83860629 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean? INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION meaning - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION definition - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted. With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills. Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended. Attribution is the process in which people look for an explanation of another person's behavior. When someone does not understand another, he/she usually blames the confusion on the other's "stupidity, deceit, or craziness". Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others.
Views: 41929 The Audiopedia
What is PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? What does PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? What does PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT mean? PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT meaning - PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT definition - PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Performance management (PM) includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas. PM is also known as a process by which organizations align their resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities. This is used most often in the workplace, can apply wherever people interact — schools, churches, community meetings, sports teams, health setting, governmental agencies, social events, and even political settings - anywhere in the world people interact with their environments to produce desired effects. Armstrong and Baron (1998) defined it as a “strategic and integrated approach to increase the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors.” It may be possible to get all employees to reconcile personal goals with organizational goals and increase productivity and profitability of an organization using this process. It can be applied by organizations or a single department or section inside an organization, as well as an individual person. The performance process is appropriately named the self-propelled performance process (SPPP). First, a commitment analysis must be done where a job mission statement is drawn up for each job. The job mission statement is a job definition in terms of purpose, customers, product and scope. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous key objectives and performance standards for each job position. Following the commitment analysis is the work analysis of a particular job in terms of the reporting structure and job description. If a job description is not available, then a systems analysis can be done to draw up a job description. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous critical objectives and performance standards for each job. Werner Erhard, Michael C. Jensen, and their colleagues have developed a new approach to improving performance in organizations. Their model stresses how the constraints imposed by one’s own worldview can impede cognitive abilities that would otherwise be available. Their work delves into the source of performance, which is not accessible by mere linear cause-and-effect analysis. They assert that the level of performance that people achieve correlates with how work situations occur to them and that language (including what is said and unsaid in conversations) plays a major role in how situations occur to the performer. They assert that substantial gains in performance are more likely to be achieved by management understanding how employees perceive the world and then encouraging and implementing changes that make sense to employees' worldview. Many people equate performance management with performance appraisal. This is a common misconception. Performance management is the term used to refer to activities, tools, processes, and programs that companies create or apply to manage the performance of individual employees, teams, departments, and other organizational units within their organizational influence. In contrast, performance appraisal refers to the act of appraising or evaluating performance during a given performance period to determine how well an employee, a vendor or an organizational unit has performed relative to agreed objectives or goals, and this is only one of many important activities within the overall concept of performance management.
Views: 18259 The Audiopedia
What is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH? What does DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH mean? DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH? What does DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH mean? DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH meaning - DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH definition - DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what" question (what are the characteristics of Minnesota state population or situation being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. For example, the periodic table categorizes the elements. Scientists use knowledge about the nature of electrons, protons and neutrons to devise this categorical scheme. We now take for granted the periodic table, yet it took descriptive research to devise it. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research. For example, over time the periodic table’s description of the elements allowed scientists to explain chemical reaction and make sound prediction when elements were combined. Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.
Views: 27767 The Audiopedia
What is COLD CHAIN? What does COLD CHAIN mean? COLD CHAIN meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is COLD CHAIN? What does COLD CHAIN mean? COLD CHAIN meaning - COLD CHAIN definition - COLD CHAIN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range. It is used to help extend and ensure the shelf life of products such as fresh agricultural produce, seafood, frozen food, photographic film, chemicals, and pharmaceutical drugs. Such products, during transport and when in transient storage, are called cool cargo. Unlike other goods or merchandise, cold chain goods are perishable and always en route towards end use or destination, even when held temporarily in cold stores and hence commonly referred to as cargo during its entire logistics cycle. Cold chains are common in the food and pharmaceutical industries and also in some chemical shipments. One common temperature range for a cold chain in pharmaceutical industries is 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F). but the specific temperature (and time at temperature) tolerances depend on the actual product being shipped. Unique to fresh produce cargoes, the cold chain requires to additionally maintain product specific environment parameters which include air quality levels (carbon dioxide, oxygen, humidity and others), which makes this the most complicated cold chain to operate. This is important in the supply of vaccines to distant clinics in hot climates served by poorly developed transport networks. Disruption of a cold chain due to war may produce consequences similar to the smallpox outbreaks in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War. There have been numerous events where vaccines have been shipped to third world countries with little to no cold chain infrastructure (Sub-Sahara Africa) where the vaccines were inactivated due to excess exposure to heat. Patients that thought they were being immunized, in reality were put at greater risk due to the inactivated vaccines they received. Thus great attention is now being paid to the entire cold chain distribution process to ensure that simple diseases can eventually be eradicated from society. Traditionally all historical stability data developed for vaccines was based on the temperature range of 2–8 °C (36–46 °F). With recent development of biological products by former vaccine developers, biologics has fallen into the same category of storage at 2–8 °C (36–46 °F) due to the nature of the products and the lack of testing these products at wider storage conditions. The cold chain distribution process is an extension of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) environment that all drugs and biological products are required to adhere to, enforced by the various health regulatory bodies. As such, the distribution process must be validated to ensure that there is no negative impact to the safety, efficacy or quality of the drug substance. The GMP environment requires that all processes that might impact the safety, efficacy or quality of the drug substance must be validated, including storage and distribution of the drug substance.
Views: 20802 The Audiopedia
What is LACTULOSE? What does LACTULOSE mean? LACTULOSE meaning, definition & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is LACTULOSE? What does LACTULOSE mean? LACTULOSE meaning - LACTULOSE pronunciation - LACTULOSE definition - LACTULOSE explanation - How to pronounce LACTULOSE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It is used by mouth for constipation and either by mouth or in the rectum for hepatic encephalopathy. It generally begins working after eight to twelve hours but may take up to two days to improve constipation. Common side effects include abdominal bloating and cramps. There is the potential for electrolyte problems to occur as a result of diarrhea it produces. No evidence of harm to the baby has been found when used during pregnancy. It is generally regarded as safe during breastfeeding. It is classified as an osmotic laxative. Lactulose was first made in 1929 and has been used medically since the 1950s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price is about US$0.18 per dose. In the United States 30 doses of the liquid is about US$20. It is made from the milk sugar lactose.
Views: 21515 The Audiopedia
What is MANAGEMENT SCIENCE? What does MANAGEMENT SCIENCE mean? MANAGEMENT SCIENCE meaning
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WANT VIDEO LIKE THIS ONE? ORDER IT HERE FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS - http://bit.ly/2Uxpg5X ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is MANAGEMENT SCIENCE? What does MANAGEMENT SCIENCE mean? MANAGEMENT SCIENCE meaning - MANAGEMENT SCIENCE definition - MANAGEMENT SCIENCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to economics, business, engineering, and other sciences. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. In short, management sciences help businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods. The field was initially an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e., determining the optima (maximum value of profit, assembly line performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc. or minimum of loss, risk, costs, etc.) of some objective function. Today, management science encompasses any organizational activity for which the problem can be structured as a functional system so as to obtain a solution set with identifiable characteristics. Management science is concerned with a number of different areas of study: One is developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems. The models used can often be represented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual or verbal representations are used as well or instead. Another area is designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence. Management science research can be done on three levels: 1. The fundamental level lies in three mathematical disciplines: probability, optimization, and dynamical systems theory. 2. The modeling level is about building models, analyzing them mathematically, gathering and analyzing data, implementing models on computers, solving them, experimenting with them—all this is part of management science research on the modeling level. This level is mainly instrumental, and driven mainly by statistics and econometrics. 3. The application level, just as in any other engineering and economics disciplines, strives to make a practical impact and be a driver for change in the real world. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. The techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups. Its origins can be traced to operations research, which made its debut during World War II when the Allied forces recruited scientists of various disciplines to assist with military operations. In these early applications, the scientists utilized simple mathematical models to make efficient use of limited technologies and resources. The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as management science. In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research".
Views: 22677 The Audiopedia
What is STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE? What does STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE? What does STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE mean? STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE meaning - STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE definition - STRENGTH-BASED PRACTICE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Strength-based practice is a social work practice theory that emphasizes people's self-determination and strengths. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing clients as resourceful and resilient in the face of adversity. It is client-led, with a focus on future outcomes and strengths that people bring to a problem or crisis. When applied beyond the field of social work, strength-based practice is also referred to as the "strength-based approach". Social worker Bertha Reynolds was a proto-theorist for this practice. She criticized the American social work tendency to adopt a psychoanalytic approach (and the corollary dependence on the DSM IV) with clients. It was formally developed by a team from the University of Kansas, including Dennis Saleebey, Charles Rapp & Anne Weick. In 1997, Rapp wrote "The Strengths Model", which focused on "amplifying the well part of the patient". The popularity of his approach spread quickly and in 1999, Dr. Martin Seligman, the president of the American Psychological Association at the time, made an observation that fuelled strength-based practice: "The most important thing we learned was that psychology was half-baked. We've baked the part about mental illness, about repair damage. The other side's unbaked, the side of strength, the side of what we're good at". Since then, the strength-based approach has been adapted and applied to many contexts. In the service sector, for example, it has been applied to case management, education, community development, and working with many different groups, such as young people and people with mental illnesses. Beyond social services, in 1995, Marcus Buckingham and Donald Clifton introduced the strengths perspective to the business world. The strength-based approach is often referred to as a response to more deficit-focused or pathological approaches. For example, Laursen and Nissen noted that in the field of youth justice, the mainstream corrections model focuses on risks, needs, and addresses weaknesses. Alternatively, the strength-based approach enhances strengths, and builds on characteristics that are already present in individuals. Although applied differently depending on the population and service, the approach has been characterized as a philosophy or lens through which people are viewed and through which programs and agencies operate. According to Powell and Batsche, a strength-based philosophy is a critical belief, an all-pervasive attitude that informs a professional's interactions with clients. Ideally, an entire agency will adopt the approach, and, through ongoing training, this attitude-change will occur in all staff, transforming the way they view their work, their colleagues, and, of course, the people and communities they work with. This strength-based philosophy holds the core belief that all individuals have strengths and resources. The focus of the practice is on a person's skills, interests and support systems. Its simple premise is to identify what is going well, to do more of it, and to build on it. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the strength-based approach is limited; however, some studies have shown that working with individuals and communities through a strength lens improves individual outcomes, such as quality of life, employment, and health. On a more societal level, a strength-based approach promotes positive views of individuals and takes focus away from blame or judgement. This alternative view may contribute to de-stigmatization of certain groups and may increase positive political attention and social support. Overall, there is a need for more research and further evaluations of the strength-based approach.
Views: 9993 The Audiopedia
What is HUMANITARIAN CRISIS? What does HUMANITARIAN CRISIS mean? HUMANITARIAN CRISIS meaning
 
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What is HUMANITARIAN CRISIS? What does HUMANITARIAN CRISIS mean? HUMANITARIAN CRISIS meaning - HUMANITARIAN CRISIS definition - HUMANITARIAN CRISIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people. It may be an internal or external conflict and usually occurs throughout a large land area. Local, national and international responses are necessary in such events. Each humanitarian crisis is caused by different factors and as a result, each different humanitarian crisis requires a unique response targeted towards the specific sectors affected. This can result in either short-term or long-term damage. Humanitarian crises can either be natural disasters, man-made disasters or complex emergencies. In such cases, complex emergencies occur as a result of several factors or events that prevent a large group of people from accessing their fundamental needs, such as food, clean water or safe shelter. Examples of humanitarian crises include armed conflicts, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies. If such a crisis causes large movements of people it could also become a refugee crisis. As such, humanitarian crises are often interconnected and complex and several national and international agencies play roles in the repercussions of the incidences. There is no simple categorization of humanitarian crises. Different communities and agencies tend to have definitions related to the concrete situations they face. A local fire service will tend to focus on issues such as flooding and weather induced crises. Medical and health related organizations are naturally focused on sudden crises to the health of a community. An ongoing or lingering pandemic may amount to a humanitarian crisis, especially where there are increasing levels of virulence, or rates of infection as in the case of AIDS, bird flu or Tuberculosis. Major health-related problems such as cancer, global warming typically require an accentuated or punctuated mass-event to justify a label of "crisis" or "disaster". The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) lists categories which include different types of natural disasters, technological disasters (i.e. hazardous material spills, Chernobyl-type of nuclear accidents, chemical explosions) and long-term man-made disasters related to "civil strife, civil war and international war". Internationally, the humanitarian response sector has tended to distinguish between natural disasters and complex emergencies which are related to armed conflict and wars.
Views: 1662 The Audiopedia
What is PRODUCTION ENGINEERING? What does PRODUCTION ENGINEERING mean?
 
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Views: 38611 The Audiopedia

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